Did you know that in the Book of Revelation alone we find references to over six hundred verses from the Old Testament, which is also known as the Tanakh? How in the world can you understand the Book of Revelation if you don’t connect the verses to the original Scriptures that were used as a reference? The Book of Revelation relies extensively on imagery and allusions from the Tanakh, so the Christian view of the coming Messiah is most properly understood by looking through the Jewish lens.
For example, John 1:1 states, “In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” John used the very first words from the Book of Genesis, “In the beginning,” implying Yeshua is the Word that was there at creation.
Then, in the first chapter of Revelation, the apostle John sees a menorah (“seven golden candlesticks”), and Yeshua is standing in the middle with eyes like flames of fire (vv. 12-14). The Greek rendering states John is seeing the Alpha and Omega. But in Hebrew it is correctly rendered as the Aleph and Tav, the first and the last letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
The most exciting revelation I ever had concerning end-time understanding was when my eyes were opened to how the feasts of the Lord were directly tied to the Book of Revelation and the unfolding of end-time events. By the feasts of the Lord I am referring to Leviticus 23, where God lays out His divine appointments according to His calendar for the timing of His feasts such as Passover, Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, Trumpets, Yom Kippur, Tabernacles, and others. I say this because too many Christians portray the feasts of the Lord as the feasts of the Jews and throw them into the trash bin of history because of the Anti-Semitic philosophy of the early church fathers.
I studies the feasts back in the ’70s when I went to Bible college, but they were taught from a replacement-theology perspective. To properly understand who the Messiah is, you must look at His second coming and the Book of Revelation through the eyes of the feasts. God said He declared the end from the beginning, so let’s go to the beginning of the Bible and see what God says concerning the end of times!
In Genesis 1:14 God said He created the sun and the moon for signs, seasons, days, and years. All too often we think this refers to our calendar, made up of winter, spring, summer, and fall, as well as our days of the week and the year 2017, 2018, 2019 …
There are many calendars in the world. The current pagan calendar most of the world uses today is only two thousand years old, so it can’t be an original. As you probably know, our calendar is very scientific and accurate, as it is based totally on the cycle of the sun. The muslim calendar is also very scientifically accurate, as it is based solely on the cycle of the moon.
But guess what? In Genesis, God told us the calendar He uses is based on both the sun and the moon. When He talked about how they were to determine the days and years, He was referring to His holy days such as Passover and Yom Kippur. The years referred to the seven-year cycle in which Israel was to let the land rest and settle all financial debts. It was known as the Shemitah year. There was also the Jubilee year, which was ever fiftieth year, when the land returned to its original owner. Nowhere are any od these recognized on our regular calendar or the Muslim calendar, so our calendars are definitely not God’s calendar.
It doesn’t help that the English word seasons is also translated inaccurately! The Hebrew word is moed. Did you know the English translators decided to translate this same Hebrew word in Leviticus 23:2 as the word feast? What in the world? Does the Hebrew word mean fall or food? When I think of a feast, I’m thinking of a big turkey dinner!
Believe it or not, both translations are inaccurate! The word moed actually means a divine appointment. Think of it this way: God set the sun and the moon on His time clock. The sun can be the our hand, and the moon the minute hand. The Bible says a day with the Lord is as a thousand years. (See 2 Peter 3:8). God placed specific times (moed) in His daily planner when He wanted to meet with His people.
This is why God specifically showed Moses how to determine when the months were to begin by showing him how the moon would look at the beginning of each month. He also told him that Passover had to be kept in the spring, which is why the biblical calendar adds a thirteenth month seven times over a nineteen-year cycle to keep Passover in the spring.
I used to live in Garden City, Kansas, on the border between two time zones: mountain time and central time. If you’ve never lived near the border between two time zones, let me tell you, it’s helpful to have two clocks — especially if you live in one zone and work a couple of miles away in the other. It can take “an hour” to drive a couple of miles without any traffic!
It is the same for believers. We must realize that we need to operate on two different calendars: the one God created (if we care about His schedule) and the one man created (because we still live in this world), The time is coming when our pagan calendar will be trashed and all believers will be following God’s calendar, as it says we will be doing at the end of Isaiah 66 when He creates the new heavens and new earth (vv. 22-23).
If your boss told you he wanted to meet with you at 3:00 p.m. on Friday, and you told him that didn’t work in your schedule, so he’d better meet with you at 10:00 a.m. on Monday, do you think you would have a job on Monday? The Creator of the universe ordained a calendar at creation that He would reveal to mankind at the appointed time. In other words, He scheduled divine appointments to meet with His kids.
The problem is that many believers don’t show up because they are either unaware or don’t care. One of the big things the evil one wants to do is get you to miss divine appointments. Daniel 7:23-25 mentions how the fourth beast wants to change the times and the laws. This refers to God’s appointed times, not the calendar the world uses!
In one sense the antichrist spirit has partially succeeded by moving Passover from the biblical calendar to the pagan calendar. In 2016 Christians celebrated Easter a month before Passover! How in the world do you celebrate Christ’s resurrection a month before His death unless you’re on the wrong calendar?
Why is Christmas always December 25, but Easter bounces all over the place? It is because the early church wanted to separate from anything to do with the Jewish people! So in AD 325 the Council of Nicaea established that Easter would be held on the first Sunday after the first full moon occurring on or after the vernal equinox. God’s calendar is based on both the sun and the moon, so Passover doesn’t fall in the winter or Hanukkah in the summer.
During the time of the Messiah, there was no set calendar, as the Sanhedrin would determine it based on several factors. The primary factor was the spring equinox, and if it look as if it would fall later than the first half of the month of Nisan, they would declare a leap year and add an extra month. Yet that was not the only factor, as God wanted them to participate in the decision, so if the weather was not spring-like and the barley would not be harvested, then another month would be added.
The Greeks were big on nature and astronomy. They did not like that the Jewish authority felt they could decide when the new moon was sighted to determine the new month for the Jewish people, even when it didn’t coincide with their own observations. During the times of Hanukkah the Greeks determined that the Jews would die if they used the authority of the Sanhedrin in determining the biblical calendar. In AD 359, because Rome was in power, the Sanhedrin was no longer able to determine all the factors that were necessary to set the calendar. So Rabbi Hillel of the great Sanhedrin set a perpetual calendar, adding an extra month seven times over nineteen years to keep the calendar accurate until either the temple is rebuilt or the Messiah comes.
The Catholic Church members felt they had the authority rather than the Jewish people to determine when Easter should be celebrated. Protestants today follow the authority of the Catholic Church in this and other matters.
DRESS REHEARSAL FOR THINGS TO COME
The next incredible finding I discovered was that the feasts were actually dress rehearsals, or shadows, of what was to come! Leviticus 23 tells us that on the fourteenth day of the first month before the evening is the Lord’s Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread unto the Lord. Notice it says the Lord’s Passover, not the Jewish Passover. This is also not referring to January 14 or 15!
Why do you think the Lord died on Passover, He was buried on Unleavened Bread, He rose on the Feast of Firstfruits, and the Spirit was poured out on Shavuot, which we know as Pentecost? Do you believe the LORD is the same yesterday, today, and forever? Do you really? Then if He fulfilled the spring feasts to the day of His first coming, He will also fulfill the fall feasts to the day of His second coming!
I am not setting dates but revealing established patterns in the Word of God. So let’s review the instructions for the feasts and see how they correlate to the Book of Revelation.
We have the Feast of Trumpets in Leviticus 23, which takes place on the first day of the month of Tishri, which is around September/Oktober. I believe this is the appointed time for the dress rehearsal of the coronation of the Messiah some year on that day. Do we hear anything about trumpets in the Book of Revelation? Of course we do! So we must understand this feast to fully comprehend what the Book of Revelation is talking about.
The Feast of Trumpets is known as the opening of the doors and is the day when God sits on His throne to judge all of mankind. What do we find in Revelation 4:1-2? We find John beholding a door being “opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter. And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the trone.” This is the Feast of Trumpets terminology! All through Revelation we are hearing of trumpets.
What about Yom Kippur? It is found in the Book of Revelation? You bet it is!
In Leviticus 16 we read about the instruction for the Yom Kippur service. We find in verses 12-15 the priest “shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail: and he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may come over the mercy seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not: and he shall take the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat.”
Psalm 141:2 likens our prayers to incense. Compare this to Revelation 8:3-5, were we see an angel standing at the heavenly altar with a golden censer being given “much incense” to be offered “with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out the angel’s hand. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth.” This is Yom Kippur being fulfilled!
Look at this next comparison as well. Let’s go back to the Yom Kippur ceremony in Leviticus 16:16-17, where we find that there was to be no man in the tabernacle when the priest went in to make atonement until he has made atonement for himself, and for his house and the congregation of Israel as well. Then we find in Revelation 15:8 that the temple in heaven was filled with smoke from the glory of God and again, “no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.” Every year on Yom Kippur the high priest would have to take off his regular garments and put on white linen garments, as mentioned in Leviticus 16. This is why religious Jews wear all-white garments every year on Yom Kippur, they realize white is symbolic of righteousness. Can you imagine having on all-white linen garments and being around the slaughtering of animals and then splashing their blood all over the altar?
Yom Kippur is known as the Day of Judgment, when the books and doors are closed and judgment is meted out. Well, what do we find in Revelation 19 but that God has “judged the great whore,” He has “avenged the blood of his servants,” and He is “clothed with a vesture dipped in blood” (vv. 2,13)? Then we find the armies that were in heaven following Him on white horses; they are all clothed in fine linen, white and clean, and all the nations of the world are smitten by God’s Word (vv. 14-15). These are all images of Yom Kippur! This is confirming that these events will happen according to the pattern at the appointed time in the future on Yom Kippur.
What about the Feast of Tabernacles? Of course it is in the Book of Revelation! This is the grand finale where the Creator of the universe once again tabernacles with His creation. In Revelation 21:3 we find John hearing “a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. “How exciting! Imagine, as God said in Ecclesiastes 3:1, there is a time and a season for everything done under the sun, and He has appointed specific times when He will intersect human history!
Based on this understanding I believe the prophetic events of the Feast of Trumpets will be fulfilled during the appointed calendar time for the Feast of Trumpets in some year.The same will happen for Yom Kippur and the Feast of Tabernacles!
People tell me that the feasts are all done away with, and they base it on two Scriptures that have been totally misinterpreted.
- Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods. But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain. — GALATIANS 4:8-11, EMPHASIS ADDED
- Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ. — COLOSSIANS 2:16-17, EMPHASIS ADDED
Do you notice the change in the description of months compared to new moons and days to holy days? Paul is talking about two different calendars here! In Galatians he is referring to our pagan calendar, and in Colossians he obviously refers to the biblical calendar! We need to look at this in context to understand. In the first scripture Paul is talking to the Galatians. Who were they? Well, let’s go to the Book of Acts. In Acts 14:8-11 we learn of a man at Lystra who was “impotent in his feet,” meaning he had never walked. When he heard Paul tell him with a loud voice to stand up on his feet, he leaped and walked. And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying, “The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.”
In verses 12-15 we learn “they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker. Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people. Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,” saying that they “should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein” (emphasis added).
So before the Galatians knew God, they were worshippers of the solar system and followed those gods. This is why Paul is asking why in the world, now that they know God and are aware of His calendar, they would go back to the weak and beggarly elements of worshipping the planets and following a pagan calendar.
In the next verses from Colossians 2:16, Paul is referring to the biblical calendar. He is basically congratulating them for staying on it and encouraging them not to let the Galatians judge them for keeping the feasts and the biblical calendar! The Colossians were the Galatians’ next-door neighbors. So he was telling them not to be deceived in the neglecting of God’s calendar.
I believe Paul was asking the “foolish Galatians” why in the world they would go back to a pagan calendar system when they had the biblical calendar. They could not have been returning to a biblical calendar they were never on. And he was telling the Colossians not to let anyone judge them because they were living according to the biblical calendar.
The festivals are shadows of things to come — not just a shadow of what has happened but a shadow of future events that are yet to come! Just as Moses’ tabernacle in the wilderness was a shadow of the heavenly tabernacle, just as the earthly Jerusalem is a shadow of the heavenly Jerusalem, over and over we see things on earth are shadows of what is to come. Even our earthly bodies are shadows of our heavenly bodies to come.
My goodness, if there were no shadow, how would anyone know there is a reality out there casting it! If you throw out the shadow, you have just blocked the little information we do have coming from heaven that is trying to help us! Not only that, but when the Bible declares we were “created in God’s image,” it is the same word that is used for God’s shadow! A shadow is not insignificant. Even you are God’s shadow; are you insignificant?
By Mark Biltz / http://www.elshaddaiministries.us
New Book: DECODING THE ANTICHRIST AND THE END TIMES (what the Bible says and what the furture holds)
The Autumn feasts of the LORD
The Calendar of Gods Appointed Times is His way of making sure we do not forget His benefits. We are a forgetful people but the Jewish calendar of cyclic festivals is God’s way of helping us remember history. So, what is the significance of the Autumn Biblical Feasts? Where do they come from and what is the message to us as believers?
For Israel the Autumn Feasts are not a one-day wonder. The Feasts of Trumpets is followed by Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement or Covering which culminates in Sukkot – the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles. It all starts on 1st Tishri (Beginnings). Tishri is the first month of the new civil year. The Jews certainly know how to celebrate. They have so much to be thankful for and have so much practice through the year. The key to the Jewish feasts was ‘regularly, generosity, purity.
God is a God of order and works to a timetable
Psalm 102:13 says “You will arise and have mercy on Zion; for the time to favour her, yes the set time has come.” Israel is restored physically but what about spiritually? God is working to a timetable and Romans 5:6 says, “In due time Christ died for the ungodly …“; 2 Corinthians 6:2 “Now is the time for salvation” and so Galatians 4:4 “ … in the fullness of time God sent His son.”
All the Feasts of the Lord are important
Leviticus 23 talks of the Feasts of the Lord. They are not Jewish Feasts or Feasts of Israel – but appointed times of the Lord. Time out to spend with Him. All seven form a timeline which tell the redemptive story of God’s dealings with Israel, Romans 11:17-25. We all need reminding because we so quickly forget.
First of the Autumn feasts celebrated as the Jewish new year. A common custom is to say “L’shanah tovah”, which means, “May it be a good year.” Another custom is to eat apples dipped in honey. The apples and honey represent God’s provision and sweetness that He will manifest to us in the coming year. We read about this feast (Yom T’rooah) in Leviticus 23:24 — “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, in the seventh month, on the first of the month (Tishri), you shall have a rest, a reminder by blowing of (shofars) trumpets.” The sounds of the shofar represent crying, and are intended to bring each individual toward deep introspection and repentance.
Second of the Autumn feasts is the holiest day of the year. We can read about this feast in Leviticus 16, 17 and 23:27. The High Priest would carry the blood of the bull and goat through the veil and into the Most Holy Place in the Tabernacle – the Holy of Holies. The High Priest of the Israelites would then poor the blood onto the altar over the Ark of the Covenant and, in doing so, make atonement for the children of Israel (Lev. 17:11).
Third of the Autumn feasts. This feast is a joyous and happy time of giving thanks to God for his provision. We read about this feast in Leviticus 23:34-42 “On the fifteenth of this seventh month is the Feast of Tabernacles for seven days to the LORD … You shall thus celebrate it as a feast to the LORD … It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations … You shall live in booths for seven days.“
How was thankfulness & fruitfulness to be expressed?
- Throughout the Bible in a life offered up to God. Ephesians 5:18-21.
- A life filled with the spirit of God instead of this world.
- One whose sacrificial offerings were meant to cost something – whose whole life was given as a living sacrifice to God, Romans 12:1.
- Offerings were to be perfect, the best, without blemish. Not our castoffs or things we do not need anymore but the very best.
- Living sacrifices were not dead – obviously!
Burnt offerings were required by the Law and 205/210 references to offerings and 535/547 refs to offering are Old Testament. But this repeated offering of animals was never going to take away sin Hebrew 10:11, but there would be someone who in his own blood offered himself for sin once and for all, Hebrew 9:28; 10:14. Hebrews contains much information about offerings and the limitation of offering for sin yet we are to be perpetual living sacrifices. What does that mean for earthly ambitions?
Features of the end times
Remembering God’s Promises and thankfulness will be a rare commodity in Last Days. Linked with ungratefulness and a people more concerned with rights than responsibilities. “For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy“, 2 Tim. 3:2.
The Autumn Feasts are about fruitfulness & thankfulness
A farmer who sows without expecting a large return isn’t much a farmer. Similarly, if he sows with few seed, he will quite naturally get a poor return. God wants us ” … to be fruitful in very good work.” Colossians 1:10, Hebrews 13:21. But what does this mean? “Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do,” Deuteronomy 29:9; 23:6; 28:29. It is a declaration that God wants us to do be a truly ‘blessed’ people who have enough for our lives and enough left over to bless others. But we also need to sow carefully in accordance with the Word.
Vereniging van Jesjoea Hammasjiach Belijdende Joden
Day of Atonement / Yom Kippur / Peter Tsukahira
MATTHEW 24, HANUKKAH, AND THE MESSIAH
WHEN IT COMES to Matthew 24, every end-times enthusiast is all over it! It really does set the stage for coming events. Let’s look at Matthew 24 through the lens of what the disciples might have thinking based on their own history. We’ll see what it tells us about the coming of the Messiah. When we read this chapter, we need to keep in mind what the listeners of that day were thinking rather than superimposing our own present-day thoughts as we read it.
When we realize that history is always repeating itself, we will have a better understanding of what can be unpacked in this chapter. Don’t think of biblical prophecy as some kind of a checklist, where if it happened once, it won’t happen again. See it as a recurring theme happening over and over again but from different perspectives. The Bible says in Ecclesiastes 1, “The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun” (v. 9).
Matthew 24 is actually about many of the events surrounding Hanukkah happening again! Did you know the New Testament even talks about Yeshua keeping Hanukkah? It’s another excellent example of a perceived bias in the translation. John 10 speaks of Yeshua being in the temple at the Feast of Dedication, and it was winter. The Hebrew word for dedication is Hanukkah! As a first century Jew, Yeshua kept all of the biblical feast every year, celebrating Hanukkah and Purim as well. Because of the very fact that He was Jewish and part of that culture, I don’t think it’s a leap at all to assume that John 10 is simply recording one of those times.
To understand the connection between Hanukkah and the end times in Matthew 24, we need to better understand the facts surrounding Hanukkah. It is a very biblical event — Daniel even prophesied that it would happen — and as the Scriptures state, “That which has been is that which shall be!” (See Ecclesiastes 1:9). I must first lay a foundation as to what happened during the original Hanukkah, around 168 BC, for those unfamiliar.
Imagine that you were one of Yeshua’s disciples. Put yourself right there with the rest of them. He is now talking to you two thousand years ago in Matthew 24. Hanukkah would be ringing in your ears as He spoke, and you would be wondering how it could ever happen again. To the disciples the events of Hanukkah were similar to our War of Independence; it even occurred about two hundred years earlier; which is roughly the same length of time from the signing of our own nation’s Declaration of Independence until today.
According to Josephus, in his work Antiquities of the Jews Book 18.104.22.1687, we find that the site of the temple was found to be deserted, the gates were burnt down, plants were growing in the temple of their own accord, and they built a new altar and had to make new vessels. Josephus then goes on to say that the desolation of the temple came to pass according to the prophecy of Daniel!
Let’s consider what Daniel saw in his vision: a ram with two horns (8:3). Then he “saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward” and nobody “could deliver out of his hand” (v. 4). As he was considering it, a he-goat with a great horn between his eyes came from the west and struck the ram and broke its two horns.
We know from history that after the Babylonian Empire, the Medes and Persians, represented by the ram with two horns, took over (vv. 5-7). The he-goat represented de Greek Empire. Do you realize who the leader (the great horn) of the Greek Empire was? None other than Alexander the Great!
It says that the he-goat became “very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken.” And in its place “came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven” (v. 8). Students of history know that after Alexander the Great died, his kingdom was divided up among his four military leaders.
The Bible goes on to say that “out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land…. He magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down” (vv. 9,11, emphasis added). This little horn that became great was none other than Antiochus Epiphanes, the very leader that the Hanukkah story revolves around!
We are now going to compare what happened historically at Hanukkah with Matthew 24. You can see the connection when you read from the historical book of the Maccabees. Remember, these events … … …
HONDERD/100- jaar na Weizmann-Feisal overeenkomst (1919)!
Na vierhonderd jaar Turkse overheersing (1517-1917), waarbij de provincie ‘Palestina’ als onderdeel van het Ottomaanse rijk min of meer aan haar lot was overgelaten en er amper bomen stonden, kwam er sinds 1917 een nieuwe bestuurder: Engeland. Aanvankelijk leek dat heel goed te gaan en het land toonde sympathie voor de zionisten die eind 19e eeuw mondjesmaat het land probeerde te herstellen door moerassen te dempen en bomen te planten.
In 1903 al, bood Engeland de Joden aan om hun nieuwe staat te stichten in Brits Oost Afrika (Oeganda). Theodor Herzl, die het eerste Zionistische congres had georganiseerd in 1897, had wel oren naar dit plan maar de meeste leden van de Zionistische beweging wilden dat ‘Palestina’ afgescheiden zou worden van Turkije en dat er een Joodse staat zou verrijzen in het aloude, aan de voorvaderen beloofde, land. Besprekingen tussen Chaim Weizmann (toen de voorzitter van de Zionistische wereldorganisatie) en Lloyd George leidde uiteindelijk tot de Balfour-declaration waarin werd bevestigd dat er een nationaal tehuis voor het Joodse volk zou komen in ‘Palestina’. Tegelijkertijd kregen de Arabieren ook steun van Engeland om hun eigen onafhankelijkheid uit te breiden. Weizmann had in 1919 een historische ontmoeting met emir Feisal, een zoon van de … … …
Weg uit Babylon:
“Het Bloed Schreeuwt Uit De Aarde” — De hartverscheurende geschiedenis van eeuwenlange Jodenvervolging in christelijk Europa en Gods antwoord hierop. / Bestel op: http://www.weguitbabylon.nl
Gerard J.C. Plas